The social measures that Akbar had introduced give us an impression of a new world or modernism. Mughal Emperor Akbar abolished all inland customs and taxes on trades and professions. He discouraged child marriage and encouraged widow remarriage. He abolished the pilgrim tax all throughout his empire. On inquiry Akbar was told that it had been the custom of every Muslims ruler to realize pilgrim tax from the Hindus at every place of Hindu pilgrimage. A big college was founded at Fathepur on the hill, the like of which few travelers can name”. Social Reforms of Akbar Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. into Persian. … He stopped sati (the burning of a widow), unless she herself, of her own free will, determinedly desired it. 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Raja Ram Mohan Roy (22 May 1772 – 27 September 1833) was one of the founders of the Brahmo Sabha, the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a social-religious reform movement in the Indian subcontinent.He was given the title of Raja by Akbar II, the Mughal emperor.His influence was apparent in the fields of politics, public administration, education and religion. As a further safeguard against abuses, Akbar reorganized the existing network of newswriters, whose duty it was to send regular … Akbar introduced a number of social reforms to rid Indian society from some cruel practices like: Akbar issued orders to the kotwals to check the forcible practice of Sati or the burning of a widow on the funeral pyre of her husband. Akbar was known for rewarding talent, loyalty, and intellect, regardless of ethnic background or religious practice. Further, Akbar made a strict rule that widows of tender age who had not shared … Akbar took special care for the education of his sons. In addition to compiling an … His principle of religious toleration did not, however, make him blind to certain evils in the Hindu society. Akbar was not in favor of second marriage (having two wives at the same time) unless the first wife was barren. This was abolished by Akbar in 1563 and all citizens could travel freely across the empire to visit places of worship. His father, Humayun, the favourite son of the Mughal emperor Babar and his mother, Hamida Banu Begum, abandoned him and his little sister Bakhshi Banu to his uncles, when he was only one year old. In another case Akbar intervened to persuade the young widow of Birbhadra of Panna not to immolate herself in her husband’s pyre. In this video you will learn about the administrative policies followed by Akbar and the officials in his kingdom. Besides the Madrasahs and educational institutions set up by Akbar and the nobles, there were many private schools. Akbar seemed to have possessed a very modern mind. Economic and Social Developments under the Mughals *Trade and Industry* == *Urban Life* == *Rural Conditions* == *Health and Medical Facilities* == *Social Customs* == *The Position of the Hindus* [[223]] IT WAS the normal policy of the Timurid rulers, both in their original Central Asian homelands and in India, to encourage trade. Akbar introduced a number of social and educational reforms. In your opinion, what solutions are desirable to help crush the caste-based exploitation in India? In 1562 Akbar prohibited the age-long custom of enslaving the prisoners of war, selling their wives and children, etc. Akbar set up a state bank from which loans might be taken by the gamblers and every gambling den was made liable to pay a fixed charge. ALL IN ONE Social Reforms of Akbar Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. He prohibited the practice of ‘sati’ and legalised the remarriages of widows. This had the effect of stopping random hanging or killing of accused persons under orders of the governors. Widow re-marriage was encouraged. Explain in what way Akbar was a great social reformer and how these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses. In 1582, an order was passed appointing a number of officers to regulate the transactions of sale and purchase of a certain number listed articles. Salima Sultana was a poet of repute in Persian and Maham Anaga, Akbar’s chief nurse was also an educated lady. His principle of religious toleration did not, however, make him blind to certain evils in the Hindu society. Such was Akbar’s fervor for education that Abul Fazl wrote in appreciation that “All civilized nations have schools for education of youths, but Hindustan is particularly famous for its seminaries. The reform was necessitated by the fact that Akbar had made Persian compulsory for all the state officials and by his desire to create a common nationality. This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. Akbar's social reforms and treatment of women: Akbars attempts at social reforms especially concerning women showed how advanced he was-Encouraged widow remarriage (for both Muslims and Hindus)-Discouraged child marriages-Legally prohibited sati (very adamant about this) Shaikh Faizi and Sharif Khan were the teachers of Murad. (250 words), Reference:  Class XI NCERT – Medieval Indian history. Social Reforms of Akbar Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. Explain how these social reforms helped him build better society and gain legitimacy from the Indian masses. Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon. Present brief background of Akbar’s reign. The crux of Akbar's religious beliefs was his faith in monotheism or Tauhid-i-Ilahi. Social Reforms: Akbar had the welfare of his people always in his mind. The major social reform introduced by Akbar was the abolition of the Pilgrimage Tax for Hindus in 1563 as well as the Jazia tax imposed on the Hindu subjects. Like many of the sufis, Akbar believed that communion with God… to burn herself in the funeral pyre otter dead husband but her step son Udai Singh and other relations almost forced her to agree to become a Suttee. Akbar also tried to stop the practice of Sati. Akbar found that the pilgrim tax was morally wrong both because it was imposed on people who came “in search of the light of God” and because it was not uniform but arbitrary, variable according to the whim of the collector of the tax. Consent of the parents of the boy and the girl to be married and also their mutual consent were made obligatory before marriage was performed. Princess Gul Badan wrote the famous Humayun-Nama as a contribution to Abul Fazl’s Akbarnama. Insights has redefined the way preparation is done in UPSC civil service exam, Nanda Ashirwad Complex, 3rd Floor, Gambling brought ruin to families, resulted in strife, yet it was almost universal. Conclude with importance of such rulers and well thought social reforms in the past. Akbar was against child marriage which was prevalent both among the Hindus and the Muslims. This pernicious custom followed during centuries past was abolished saving many innocent unfortunate people from being reduced to slavery. Enlist various social reforms taken by him – prohibited slavery, allowed Widow remarriage, prostitution was regulated, and immoral trafficking of women brought under control, Sati of Hindu women was prohibited etc. The governors of the provinces were ordered not to inflict capital punishment without Akbar’s confirmation. He discouraged child marriage. Sayyid Khan Chagtai was Danial’s tutor. There was considerable opposition to the abolition of this tax from an influential section of the court on both religious and financial grounds. Comment. Although in his initial days as emperor he was known to be a conqueror and ruthless warrior but as the days went by he matured and turned into a benevolent emperor. Although Akbar did not pass any formal decree against the practice of Suttee he thoroughly discouraged the practice. The Imperial Library in fact, contained a great many works in Arabic. It was determined arbitrarily according to rank and wealth of the pilgrim. He had taken several measures to improve the general condition of his subjects. Has economic progress helped realize Dalit empowerment? A decree was passed by him recommending that his subjects should refrain from eating meat on the day of his accession as thanks-giving to Almighty in order that the year may pass in prosperity. The killing of animals on the first day of the week was strictly prohibited, because the day is sacred to the Sun, and during the eighteen days of the month of Fawardin, the whole month of Aban (the month in which his Majesty was born) and on sacred days to please the Hindus”. Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. He gave up hunting on Jumma Days (Fridays). To encourage this, charities were instituted in the Palace. The Mughal emperor Akbar promoted Hindus to the highest ranks of his government, ended a longstanding ban on the building of new Hindu temples, and ordered Muslims to respect cows. Akbar's reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history. Akbar also abolished jizya, the poll-tax which was imposed on the non-Muslims, for its imposition, to his mind, hindered emotional integration of his subjects into one united brotherhood. The economic, social, and cultural conditions during the first half of the seventeenth century were flourishing like anything. It is difficult, in absence of detailed evidence, the extent to which this order for census was actually executed in those days when there was lack of proper communication, conveyance etc. Akbar had created a powerful army and instituted effective political and social reforms. Akbar recognized the evil of gambling but it was so wide spread that he found it impossible to suppress the evil. Two social reforms of Akbar were. Later the lowest age for marriage was raised to 16 for the boys and 14 for the girls. Sialkot was a famous seat of learning during his time. Akbar not only widened the curriculum of studies but also threw open the gates of educational institutions which had hitherto before been exclusively reserved for the Muslims. Explain how these social reforms helped him build better society and gain legitimacy from the Indian masses. He even remarked “It is not right that a man should make his stomach the grave of animals”. Akbar recognized the social evils of intoxicants, drinks or otherwise, but he also realized that it would be impossible to enforce total prohibition and he made a compromise. He permitted wine-taking by only those whom doctors would certify it to be necessary. Sarais were opened throughout the imperial territories. Today, Insights is synonymous with UPSC civil services exam preparation. Akbar the Great (Oct. 15, 1542–Oct. Dear Student, The following points may help you: a. Akbar expanded his kingdom to a great extent . Akbar is called great because of the great social and religious reforms he introduced in the medieval… KP CM stresses need of rudimentary reforms in social welfare department December 25, 2020 Chief Minister Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mahmood Khan has stressed the need of rudimentary reforms in social welfare department to streamline its activities to improve its overall performance. Shaharzad Akbar, Senior Advisor to President for High Councils (former) Hameed Akbar, Director General of Policy and Planning, Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled Mohammad Ajmal Amirzad, Systems Development Specialist, ICT Directorate, Ministry of Finance Abul Fazl and a Brahmin Pandit were engaged to give lessons to Akbar’s grandsons. In 1564, Jaziya, a tax which was imposed on non-Muslims, was also abolished. Akbar launched massive military campaigns in Gujarat were followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. His principle of religious toleration did not, however, make him blind to certain evils in the Hindu society. Orders prohibiting marriage before the age of 12 and between cousins though permissible under Muslim law were passed by Akbar. The minimum age for the marriage of girls was raised to 14 years, while the age of the marriage of boys was raised to 16 years. Critically examine. Comment. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Akbar preferred to lose annually a sum of Rupees one crore in order to win over the goodwill of the Hindus. The tax was not a fixed one. Conclusion: It was customary for Muslim nobility to send their daughters to schools. Monserrate taught Murad the Christian doctrines. For the first time under him Hindu and Muslim children sat side by side in the same educational institutions. Widow-marriage was also encouraged. Social and economic reforms of Akbar Share with your friends. Akbar was a great social reformer and these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses. Share 0. not permanent inhabitants of the area. The removal of these impositions while gave economic relief to the people by bringing down the prices, free movement of goods produced indirectly a sense of oneness among the people. ADVERTISEMENTS: Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a great social reformer. From 1581 several reform measures were undertaken in quick succession. In the funeral pyre of the deceased husband, his wife was mercilessly thrown if she did not […] He created a powerful military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. In the same year on his way to Kabul expedition Akbar passed an order from Sirhind that a census of population should be taken. Akbar was a great social reformer and these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses. Nur Jahan (Mehr-un-nisa, Nur Mahal) – Mughal Empress, Dara Shikoh’s place in the Cultural Life of India, Information on Dara Shikoh (Eldest son of Shah Jahan), Brief History of Muhammad Sultan (Mughal Prince), 6 Reasons Why the Mughal Empire Declined in India, Downfall and Decline of the Mughal Empire, Early Life of Babur (Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur), Brief History of Mughal Prince Shah Shuja (brother of Aurangzeb), Muhammad Azam Shah (Mughal Prince) – Son of Aurangzeb, Muhammad Shah | Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah (Mughal Emperor). Excessive drinking, disorderly behavior after drinking or to booze were made punishable. Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. (2) The next reform was the abolition of Jizya which was a tax on the “conscientious faith of any man.” This measure went a long way in removing the deep-rooted bitterness in the minds of the Hindus against the Muslim rulers. Akbar had no idea of the tax that was realized from pilgrims from all places of Hindu pilgrimage. In 1563 Akbar was hunting near Mathura. As the news reached Akbar he hurriedly appeared in the scene and taking the risk of being misunderstood by his Rajput relations intervened and got those who were forcing the widow to become a Suttee, arrested (Akbarnama). During his rule, the Mughal Empire tripled in size and wealth. He reformed and strengthened his central administration and also centralized his financial system and reorganized tax-collection processes. Mirza Abdur Rahim and Qutb-ud-din Khan, both known for their liberal outlook, were amongst the tutors of Salim. Click to see full answer. Akbar the great was a reformist emperor. Akbar’s reforms required a centralized financial system, and, thus, by the side of each provincial governor (sūbadār, later called nawab) was placed a civil administrator (dīwān, or divan) who supervised revenue collection, prepared accounts, and reported directly to the emperor. Badaoni deplored Akbar’s certain orders by observing that he “promulgated some of his new-fangled decrees. Akbar: Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy: Part II (3) The Third Phase (1581-1605): Akbar's own religious ideas and beliefs crystallized slowly during the last phase. Attiguppe , Bengaluru - 560040. People were induced to give something to charity once a week or a month or a year. He did not encourage child marriages. Social Reforms. Consent of both bride and bridegroom was necessary before marriage. The Jagirdars, Siqdars, Daroghas of all provinces were to record the number of the people, their trade, occupation, income, and also the residents, i.e. A token marriage tax at varying rates was realized. In 1563, the Pilgrim Tax, which was a great burden on the Hindus, was abolished. His widow was unwilling to become a Suttee, i.e. Social reforms: Akbar’s interest in the Hindu Society led to some awakening regarding the evils of the Sati practice etc. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. XVII. But Akbar stuck to his order. Answer: Akbar introduced a number of sociai reforms to rid Indian society from some cruel practices like: He abolished the sati pratha and legalized remarriage of widows. To start with explain the fact that in addition to proclaiming a state based on universal peace and justice, Akbar took steps to create a better understanding of different religions among the subjects; he set up a translation bureau to translate works in Sanskrit, Arabic, Greek, etc. Also, why was Akbar so great? Mention any two important social reforms introduced by Akbar? However, the women who committed Sati of … One of the most memorable reforming steps taken by Akbar was against the inhuman practice of Suttee. A number of Madrasahs flourished in Agra and that of Gujarat was especially famous. Small birds and creeping animals were prohibited to be killed. Enlist various social reforms taken by him – prohibited slavery, allowed Widow remarriage, prostitution was regulated, and immoral trafficking of women brought under control, Sati of Hindu women was prohibited etc. 1. Above Village Hyper Market, Chandralyout Main Road, 27, 1605) was a 16th-century Mughal (Indian) emperor famed for his religious tolerance, empire-building, and patronage of the arts. His reforms have been discussed below: Abolition of Sati: ADVERTISEMENTS: Raja Ram Mohan Roy raised his voice against the Sati system. The names of the purchasers of wine had to be recorded in the shop at the time buying wine. Female education was also encouraged. There is no name in mediaeval history more renowned in India to the present day than that of Todar Mal, and the reason is that nothing in Akbar’s reforms more nearly touched the welfare of the people than the great financier’s reconstruction of the revenue system. Akbar is called great because of the great social and religious reforms he introduced in the medieval times although he faced great resistance to many of them. Child marriage was discouraged and female-infanticide was forbidden in his reign. He modernized Indian society in many ways. The good inhabitants were to be classified from the bad. It has to be noted that Akbar’s emphasis on secular studies was not liked by orthodox school of thought but there was no intention on Akbar’s part to destroy Arabic literature. In the same year (1582) a very important proclamation was made liberating all the slaves in the empire. He noticed that a tax was being realized from the people who had gathered there on pilgrimage. Jala-ud-din Akbar did make an attempt to bring social reforms in the society by synthesising good things of all existing religions of that time but the masses were reluctant to follow this reform better known as din-i-illahi. Ralph Fitch (a British traveler) had written about Patna (Bihar) as, “Here the women bedecked with silver and copper that it is strange to see, they use no shoes by reason of the rings of silver and copper they wear on their toes." 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